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The process approach to writing places the learner and the learner's needs at the center of interactive learning among teachers and students.
Skilled authors also engage in purposeful and active self-direction of these processes and strategies.
In this model, mechanics and grammar were emphasized over content and process.
Further, writing was given limited time and attention, and few activities pursued in classrooms required sustained writing.
As Flower and Hayes (1980) note, "a great part of skill in writing is the ability to monitor and direct one's own composing processes" (p. Research on and descriptions of expert writers-both children and adults-has been an important factor in understanding and improving children's writing abilities (Harris & Graham, 1992).
While we know what is required for effective writing, we also know that many children, and especially those who experience significant difficulties with writing, do not exhibit critical self-regulation and composition strategies, skills, and beliefs.
To reach these goals, teachers using the SRSD model provide whatever level of support and scaffolding necessary-from explicit instruction to guided discovery-in the development of (a) skillful use of strategies that make a difference, (b) self-regulation of strategic performance and knowledge of one's own cognitive processes and other learning characteristics, and (c) understanding of the purpose, significance, and limitations of the strategies used.
Integrating SRSD and the Writing Process Approach A product-oriented model of writing instruction prevailed in American schools until relatively recently (Applebee et al., 1990; Harris & Graham, 1992; Graham & Harris, in press).
Harris, Tanya Schmidt, and Steven Graham Few people-either children or adults-would describe writing as a very easy process that they complete without much effort. While negotiating the rules and mechanics of writing, the writer must maintain a focus on factors such as organization, form and features, purposes and goals, audience needs and perspectives, and evaluation of the communication between author and reader.
Self-regulation of the writing process is critical; the writer must be goal-oriented, resourceful, and reflective.
First drafts were often final drafts, read only by the teacher-who primarily marked errors in mechanics and assigned grades.
The roles of writing in learning and communicating were neglected.
Often, children act more like Snoopy does in one Peanuts cartoon.